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What is Typescript?

TypeScript is an open-source, multi-purpose software programming language that is developed and maintained by Microsoft. It is a strict syntactical superset of the JavaScript programming language and it adds an optional static typing to the language.

TypeScript is developed for the design and development of large scale software applications and it trans-compiles into vanilla JavaScript. As TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, already existing JavaScript programs are also valid programs in TypeScript. TypeScript can be used to develop JavaScript applications for both server-side and client-side applications (as with Node.js or Deno).

There are several options that are available for transcompilation. Either by using the default TypeScript Checker or by invoking the Babel compiler to convert TypeScript codes to JavaScript.

TypeScript supports various files definition that can contain type information of already existing JavaScript libraries, much like the header files that are present in C++ header files can be used to describe the structure of existing object files. This allows other programs to use make use of values that are defined in the files as if they were statically typed TypeScript entities. There are other third-party header files for popular javascript libraries such as MongoDB, jQuery, and D3.js. Various TypeScript headers for the basic Node.js modules are also made available, allowing the development of Node.js programs within TypeScript.

The TypeScript compiler is on its own written in TypeScript and compiled to vanilla JavaScript. It is released under the Apache License 2.0 license.

TypeScript is utilized as a first-class programming language in the Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 Update 2 and later versions, aside from C# and other Microsoft languages. An official extension allows Microsoft Visual Studio 2012 to support TypeScript as well.

Features of Typescript

There are many features of Typescript and some of them are:

1. Object-Oriented Language: TypeScript provides a complete feature set of an object-oriented software programming language such as interfaces, classes, inheritance, abstractions, modules, etc. In TypeScript, you can write your code for both client-side as well as server-side development.

2. TypeScript supports JavaScript libraries: TypeScript supports all elements of JavaScript. It allows the programmer to make use of already existing JavaScript codes with TypeScript. Here, we can make use all of the JavaScript frameworks, libraries and other tools easily.

3. JavaScript is TypeScript: The phrase Typescript is Javascript means that any code written in JavaScript with a valid .js extension can be converted to TypeScript by just changing the extension from .js to .ts and compiled together with other TypeScript files.

4. TypeScript is portable: TypeScript is very modular and portable because its programs can be executed on any browsers, device, or any operating systems. Basically, Typescript programs can be run in any environment where JavaScript can run on. It is not dependent on any kind of virtual-machine for execution.

5. DOM Manipulation: TypeScript can be used to manipulate the HTML DOM for adding, animating or removing elements very similar to JavaScript.

6. TypeScript is just a JS: TypeScript codes are not run directly on any browsers. Any program that is written in TypeScript always starts with JavaScript and ends with JavaScript. therefore, we only need to know JavaScript to make use of it in TypeScript. The code written in TypeScript is compiled and then converted into its JavaScript equivalent for execution in the browser. This process is known as Trans-piled. With the help of JavaScript code, web-browsers can read the TypeScript code and display the output.

Benefits of Typescript

There are many benefits of Typescript and some of them are:

1. Typescript has an optional static typing.

2. Typescript has type Inference, which presents developers with some of the benefits of types, without actually making use of them.

3. Typescript has access to all ES6 and ES7 features before they become fully supported by popular web browsers.

4. Typescript has the ability to compile down to a version of JavaScript that executes on all browsers.

5. Typescript has great tooling support with IntelliSense.

6. Typescript and Javascript is one of the most used programming languages on the web, learning Typescript will bring a lot of employment opportunities and also command high pay. 

Syntactic Features of Typescript

TypeScript is a language extension that provides some pretty cool features to ECMAScript 6.

These extra features include:

1. Type annotations and compile-time type checking

2. Type inference

3. Type erasure

4. Interfaces

5. Enumerated types

6. Generics

7. Namespaces

8. Tuples

9. Async/await

10. Classes

11. Modules

TypeScript Development Tools

1. Compiler: The typescript compiler is named tsc and it is written in typescript. Due to this, it can be compiled into normal vanilla JavaScript and can also be run in any JavaScript-powered engine like a browser The compiler pack comes compiled with a script host that can run the compiler. It is available as a Node.js package that uses Node.js as a house. The compiler helps convert the typescript code that was written to Javascript so that it can run on the web.

2. Integrated Development Environment: There are a whole lot of IDEs that support typescript language, some of them include:

1. Microsoft provides a plug-in for Visual Studio 2012 and WebMatrix, full integrated support in Visual Studio 2013, Visual Studio 2015, and basic text editor support for Emacs and Vim.

2.  Studio Code is a (mostly) open-source, cross-platform source code editor developed by Microsoft based on Electron.

3. alm.tools is an open-source cloud IDE for TypeScript built using TypeScript, ReactJS, and TypeStyle.

4. Atom has a TypeScript Plugin by Basarat with support for code completion, navigation, formatting, and fast compilation.

5. The online Cloud9 IDE and Codenvy support TypeScript.

6. A plugin is available for the NetBeans IDE.

7. A plugin is available for the Eclipse IDE (version Kepler)

8. TypEcs is available for the Eclipse IDE.

9. The Cross-Platform Cloud IDE Codeanywhere supports TypeScript.

10. Webclipse An Eclipse plugin designed to develop TypeScript and Angular 2.

11. Angular IDE A standalone IDE available via npm to develop TypeScript and Angular 2 applications, with integrated terminal support.

12. Tide – TypeScript Interactive Development Environment for Emacs.

Why Study Typescript?

1. Typescript has a more predictable code that's easier to debug.

2. Typescript has great tools that are enabled by static types.

3. Typescript gives you the ability to use features from the future, today.

4. Career opportunities and advancement

Typescript Course Outline

TypeScript - Introduction

TypeScript - Overview

TypeScript - Environment Setup

TypeScript - Basic Syntax

TypeScript - Types

TypeScript - Variables

TypeScript - Operators

TypeScript - Decision Making

TypeScript - Loops

TypeScript - Functions

TypeScript - Numbers

TypeScript - Strings

TypeScript - Arrays

TypeScript - Tuples

TypeScript - Union

TypeScript - Interfaces

TypeScript - Classes

TypeScript - Objects

TypeScript - Namespaces

TypeScript - Modules

TypeScript - Ambients

TypeScript - Video Lectures 

Typescript - Exams and Certification 

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