Information Technology Fundamentals - Using Peripheral Devices
What is a Peripheral Device?
A peripheral device is a device that either transmits data to or receives data from a computer system. This is the typical process of a computer system.
It receives data and commands from the user, processes the data according to the provided commands, presents the processed data to the user, and saves or prints the processed data if the user issues a save or print command.
All components of a computer system other than those responsible for data processing are known as peripheral devices.
In simple terms, a peripheral device is a hardware component that is not part of the core components and is used to either input information into the computer system or extract information from the computer system. The central components of a computer system are those that control and process data.
A computer system can operate without peripheral devices, but not without its fundamental components. Core components include the CPU, the motherboard, the power supply, the RAM, and the ROM. A USB drive, keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, and scanner are examples of peripheral devices.
Types of Peripheral Devices
There are three distinct types of peripheral devices. Input devices, output devices, and input/output devices fall into these categories.
- A device that inputs information or orders into a computer system. Input devices include a keyboard, mouse, scanner, barcode reader, digital pen, webcam, and microphone.
- The output device accepts processed data from the computer system and displays it to the user. A projector, monitor, printer, speaker, and headphones are examples of output devices.
- Input/output devices are capable of both input and output operations. Input/output devices include hard drives, USB drives, memory cards, tape drives, and network interface controllers.
Examples of Peripheral Devices
- Mouse: The mouse is also an essential input device. It employs point-and-click technology for system interaction. The majority of mice feature two buttons and a scroll wheel in between. In older mice, a ball was used to track motion. Modern mice utilize laser light to detect movement.
- Keyboard: The keyboard is the most prevalent and essential input device. It permits the user to input letters, numbers, and special characters. Each time a user pushes a key on a keyboard, the keyboard transmits a distinct signal to the computer. The computer's processing unit receives and interprets the signal to determine which key was pressed.
- Webcam: Webcams are common input devices. It records photographs and videos in real time. It is typically preinstalled on laptops and tablets. It is predominantly utilised for video calls and live presentations.
- Scanner: A scanner is an additional common input device. It is used for document scanning. Typically, it is used to save and utilise a digital version of the document.
- Speaker: Speakers are a common output device. The audio output signals are played. Laptops and tablets have speakers built in. On desktop PCs, these devices can be connected via ports.
- Monitor: Monitors are among the most essential output devices. It receives and displays the output from the processing unit. Temporary output is presented on the monitor. The output displayed on the monitor is hence referred to as the soft copy of the output. To make it permanent, it must be stored on other output devices.
- Hard disk: The most significant input/output device is a hard drive. It supports both input and output operations. When a computer receives data from the hard drive, the hard drive functions as an input device. When the computer saves data on the hard drive, the hard drive serves as an output device.
- NIC: NIC is the acronym for network interface card. A network interface card (NIC) is an input/output device. A NIC is used to connect a computer to a network. When sending data to the network, the computer employs the output function of the NIC. When data is received from the network, the input function of the NIC is utilized.
- USB drive: Another popular input/output device is the USB drive. They are little and compact. They are mostly used to transport data between unconnected computers. When data is transferred from a computer to a USB drive, the USB drive serves as an output device. When data is sent from a USB drive to a computer, the USB drive functions as an input device.
Types of Installation
The purpose of this subject is to familiarize you with the various device installation methods mentioned on the IT Fundamentals test.
Plug-and-Play vs Driver Installation
Plug-and-Play, frequently abbreviated PnP, is a catchy slogan used to describe gadgets that work immediately after being connected to a computer system. The user is not required to manually install device drivers or notify the computer that a new device has been added. Instead, the computer immediately detects the device, loads new drivers for the hardware if necessary, and commences working with the newly connected device. Generally, mass storage devices, keyboards, and mice use plug-and-play installation. If an operating system (OS) cannot identify a device because it lacks the proper drivers, the drivers must be installed. The drivers may be installed either before or after the device is connected, depending on the device. When a device that requires drivers is reconnected after the right drivers have been installed, the device is treated as a plug-and-play device.
Other Necessary Measures
When installing printers, scanners, or multifunction devices, the user is frequently required to connect and power on the device to finish the installation. If the device is located on a network rather than being physically connected to a computer, the installation tool may request the user to locate the correct device. When a device is bundled with applications, the installation procedure may prompt the user to choose whether to install some or all of the associated applications.
Numerous peripherals today are Internet Protocol-based (IP). These devices must be linked to either a local area network (LAN) or the internet in order to function. Wireless access points (wireless AP or WAP), wireless routers, IP security cameras, network print servers, and network printers or multifunction devices are examples of IP-based peripherals. Configuring a device for an IP connection may be accomplished using a touch panel, a setup programme, or the device's embedded web browser, depending on the device. Web-based configuration is used by devices that are administered via an embedded web browser.